Place and Time




Birth - 11 Months

Moves eyes, then head, to follow moving objects.

Reacts with abrupt change when a face or object suddenly disappears from view.

Looks around a room with interest; visually scans environment for novel, interesting objects and events.

Smiles with pleasure at recognisable playthings.

Repeats actions that have an effect, e.g. kicking or hitting a mobile or shaking a rattle.

8 - 20 Months

Watches toy being hidden and tries to find it.

Looks for dropped objects.

Becomes absorbed in combining objects, e.g. banging two objects or placing objects into containers.

16 - 26 Months

Remembers where objects belong.

Matches parts of objects that fit together, e.g. puts lid on teapot.

Beginning to understand that things might happen ‘now’.

22 - 36 Months

Enjoys playing with small-world models such as a farm, a garage, or a train track.

Notices detailed features of objects in their environment.

Understands some talk about immediate past and future, e.g. ‘before’, ‘later’ or ‘soon’.

30 - 50 Months

Comments and asks questions about aspects of their familiar world such as the place where they live or the natural world.

Shows care and concern for the environment.

40 - 60 Months

Looks closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change

Early Learning Goal

Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things.

Talk about the features of their own immediate environment and how environments might vary from one another.

Make observations of animals and plants and talk about changes.

Uses everyday language related to time.

Orders and sequences familiar events.

Measures short periods of time in simple ways.


Locational knowledge

Name and locate the four countries and capital cities of the United Kingdom

Place knowledge

Understand geographical similarities and differences of a small area of the United Kingdom, and of a small area in a contrasting non-European country

Human and physical geography

Identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the United Kingdom and the location of hot and cold areas of the world (Equator and North and South Poles)

Use vocabulary to identify key human features, including: city, village, house and shop

Geographical skills and fieldwork

use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the United Kingdom and its countries

use simple fieldwork and observational skills to study the geography of their school and its grounds and the key human and physical features of its surrounding environment.

changes within living memory. Where appropriate, these should be used to reveal aspects of change in national life

events beyond living memory that are significant nationally or globally [for example, the Great Fire of London, the first aeroplane flight or events commemorated through festivals or anniversaries]

the lives of significant individuals in the past who have contributed to national and international achievements. Some should be used to compare aspects of life in different periods [e.g. Florence Nightingale vs. Edith Cavell]

significant historical events, people and places in their own locality.

Project Peterborough

Age 6-7

Location knowledge

Name and locate the world’s seven continents and five oceans

Identify land-use patterns; and understand how some of these have changed over time

Place Knowledge

Understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom and a region within South America

Human and physical geography

Key physical features, including: beach, cliff, coast, forest, hill, mountain, sea,

ocean, river, soil, valley, vegetation, season and weather

Key human features, including: port, harbour, farm, town, office.

Understand human geography, including: types of settlement and land use

Geographical skills and fieldwork

Use aerial photographs to recognise landmarks and basic human and physical features of local area;

Devise a simple map; and use and construct basic symbols in a key

Use simple compass directions (North, South, East and West) and locational and directional language [near and far; left and right], to describe the location of features and routes on a map

Use maps/globes to identify the countries, continents & oceans studied at this key stage

Study the Roman Empire and its impact on Britain

Resistance to the Roman Empire Empire (e.g. Boudicca)

Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons

The Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England

A depth study of Ancient Egypt

Age 7-8

Locational knowledge

Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe/North and South America

Name and locate cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and key topographical features (mountains, coasts and rivers)

Identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian

Human and physical geography

Describe and understand physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and Vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle

Geographical skills and fieldwork

Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features

Use the eight points of a compass, symbols and key to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world

Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.

A local history study

A study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066

Share this page: