Arts and Creativity
The renaissance of this domain, which takes in all the arts, creativity and the imagination, is long overdue. A vigorous campaign should be established to advance public understanding of the arts in education, human development, culture and national life. There should also be a much more rigorous approach to arts teaching in schools. However, creativity is not confined to the arts. Creativity and imaginative activity must inform teaching and learning across the curriculum.
Citizenship and Ethics
This domain has both global and national components and includes the values, moral codes, customs and procedures by which people act, co- exist and regulate their affairs. It stems in part from widespread concern about growing selfishness and material greed. It intersects clearly with a number of the aims: ‘encouraging respect and reciprocity’; ‘promoting interdependence and sustainability’, ‘celebrating culture and community’ and ‘exploring, knowing, understanding and making sense’.
Faith and Belief
Religion is so fundamental to this country’s history, culture and language, as well as to the daily lives of many of its inhabitants, that it must remain within the curriculum, even though some Review witnesses argued that it should be removed on the grounds that England is a predominantly secular society or that religious belief is a matter for the family. Non-denominational schools should teach about religion with respect and understanding, but they should also explore other beliefs, including those questioning the validity of religion itself. The place of the daily act of worship, required by the 1944 Education Act and now seen by many as anomalous, deserves proper debate.
Language, Oracy and Literacy
This domain includes spoken language, reading, writing, literature, wider aspects of language and communication, a modern foreign language, ICT and other non-print media. It is at the heart of the new curriculum, and needs to be re-thought.
This includes both numeracy and the wider aspects of maths, as well as financial literacy. The question of what aspects of maths are truly essential in primary education should be re-opened.
Physical and Emotional Health
This deals with emotions and relationships and with the development and health of the human body, along with the skills of agility, co-ordination and teamwork acquired through sport and PE. The Review believes it makes medical and educational sense to group physical and emotional health together, and for health to become a mandatory component of the primary curriculum for the first time. Well-being is about educational engagement, raising aspirations and maximising potential as well as physical and emotional welfare.
Place and Time
This includes how history shapes culture, events, consciousness and identity and its contribution to our understanding of present and future. It includes the geographical study of location, other people, other places and human interdependence, locally, nationally and globally.
Science and Technology
This includes the exploration and understanding of science and the workings of the physical world, together with human action on the physical world and its consequences. Although science is currently a core subject, Review evidence shows that it has been increasingly squeezed out by testing and the national strategies. The educational case for primary science, as for the arts and humanities, needs to be strongly re-asserted.